Famous Birthdays Today: 1197-Emperor Juntoku of Japan.
Emperor Juntoku (順徳天皇) (October 22, 1197 – October 7, 1242) was the 84th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1210 through 1221.
In actuality, Emperor Go-Toba wielded effective power as a cloistered emperor during the years of Juntoku’s reign.
In 1221, he was forced to abdicate because of his participation in Go-Toba’s unsuccessful attempt to displace the Kamakura bakufu with re-asserted Imperial power. This political and military struggle was called the Jōkyū War or the Jōkyū Incident (Jōkyū-no ran).
After the Jōkyū-no ran, Juntoku was sent into exile on Sado Island (佐渡島 or 佐渡ヶ島, both Sadogashima), where he remained until his death in 1242.
This emperor is known posthumously as Sado-no In (佐渡院) because his last years were spent at Sado. He was buried in a mausoleum, the Mano Goryo, on Sado’s west coast. Juntoku’s official Imperial tomb (misasagi) is in Kyoto.
Juntoku was tutored in poetry by Fujiwara no Sadaie, who was also known as Teika. One of the emperor’s poems was selected for inclusion in the what became a well-known anthology, the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu. This literary legacy in Teika’s collection of poems has accorded Juntoku a continuing popular prominence beyond the scope of his other lifetime achievements. The poets and poems of the Hyakunin isshu form the basis for a card game (uta karuta) which is still widely played today.
Jōkyū War (承久の乱), also known as the Jōkyū Disturbance or the Jōkyū Rebellion, was fought in Japan between the forces of Retired Emperor Go-Toba and those of the Hōjō clan, regents of the Kamakura shogunate, whom the retired emperor was trying to overthrow.
The main battle was at Uji, just outside Kyōto; this was the third battle to be fought there in less than half a century. It took place in 1221, that is, the third year of the Jōkyū era.
Fujiwara no Teika, also known as Fujiwara no Sadaie, was a Japanese poet, critic, calligrapher, novelist, anthologist, scribe, and scholar of the late Heian and early Kamakura periods.
Source: Wikipedia, read more on Emperor Kammu and the for Jōkyū War http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jōkyū_War http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Juntoku http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fujiwara_no_Teika